Diesel 85 - vol. 4

Both emulsifiers and co-solvents have been evaluated with ethanol and diesel fuel. Moses et al. (1980) investigated micro-emulsions of aqueous ethanol (5% water) and ...

The definition of a "Diesel" engine to many has become an engine that uses compression ignition. To some it may be an engine that uses heavy fuel oil. To others an engine that does not use spark ignition. However the original cycle proposed by Rudolf Diesel in 1892 was a constant temperature cycle (a cycle based on the Carnot theory) that would require much higher compression than what is needed for compression ignition. Diesel's idea was to compress the air so tightly that the temperature of the air would exceed that of combustion. In his 1892 US patent (granted in 1895) #542846 Diesel describes the compression required for his cycle:

Ethanol is an attractive alternative fuel because it is a renewable bio-based resource and it is oxygenated, thereby providing the potential to reduce particulate emissions in compression–ignition engines. In this review the properties and specifications of ethanol blended with diesel fuel are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the factors critical to the potential commercial use of these blends. These factors include blend properties such as stability, viscosity and lubricity, safety and materials compatibility. The effect of the fuel on engine performance, durability and emissions is also considered. The formulation of additives to correct certain key properties and maintain blend stability is suggested as a critical factor in ensuring fuel compatibility with engines. However, maintaining vehicle safety with these blends may entail fuel tank modifications. Further work is required in specifying acceptable fuel characteristics, confirming the long-term effects on engine durability, and ensuring safety in handling and storing ethanol–diesel blends.

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